Introspection, Testimony and Memory in Mulla Sadra and Descartes’ Philosophical Systems

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Professor at Shiraz University

2 PhD.C. in Islamic Philosophy and Theology in Ilam University


“Sources of knowledge” is one of the significant topics in contemporary epistemology. Epistemologists accept five sources of knowledge: perception, reason, introspection, testimony, and memory. This paper compares introspection, testimony and memory in Mulla Sadra and Descartes’ philosophical systems. The two philosophers accept introspection, testimony and memory as the sources of knowledge. Both consider the knowledge derived from introspection as certain. They consider testimony as Transferor  and memory as maintainer.