Document Type : Research Paper
Fourth Level Student of Qom Seminari and PhD student in Islamic Studies, Faculty of Islamic Studies, University of Tehran
Associate Professor, Department of Islamic Philosophy and Theology, University of Tehran
Third Level Student of Qom Seminari, and PhD student in Islamic Studies, Faculty of Islamic Studies, University of Tehrann, Tehran, Iran
In ancient times, atomists believed that objects were composed of minuscule, invisible, and indivisible particles known as "atoms" into which any substance could be broken down. Aristotle, on the other hand, rejected the physical breakdown of matter and advocated for a metaphysical analysis of matter and form. The majority of philosophers aligned with Aristotle's viewpoint. However, modern physics, relying on observation-based research, tends to lean towards atomism.
This paper aims to assess the solution proposed by Allameh Tabatabaei to reconcile the conflict between these two theories and determine which perspective should be favored when faced with irreconcilable differences. The study utilizes conceptual, propositional, and systemic analysis methods to address these issues.
It becomes apparent that Tabatabaei's solution undermines and renders the theory of "form" ineffective. According to Aristotle, form constitutes the complete reality of a species. This implies that form cannot be reduced to the atomic level, as a single atom cannot represent the entirety of a body's reality and the foundation of its species. For instance, one atom of a "human" does not encompass the entire essence of a human being.