Document Type : Research Paper
PhD Student in Islamic Philosophy and Theology, Department of Philosophy, Faculty of Law, Theology and Political Sciences, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
Professor, Department of Philosophy, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
Associate Professor Department of Philosophy, Faculty of Theology, Imam Sadegh University, Tehran, Iran
Fakhr al-Din al-Razi and Khajeh Nasir al-Din al-Tusi share some resemblances and convergences in their doctrines concerning the problem of universals. However, there are significant differences as well. This article aims to examine their epistemological approaches to the issue of universals. In order to achieve this goal, several topics must be explored, including the cognitive status of universals, different types of universals, the process of intellection of universals, and the non-corporeal nature of universals and their abstraction. A notable aspect is the maximal rationalism exhibited by both thinkers, which emphasizes rational (universal) knowledge and, consequently, downplays the significance of empirical and natural sciences. To revitalize and shape modern science, a reevaluation of the problem of universals becomes necessary.