A Study of Condensation and Rarefaction phenomena in Islamic natural philosophy (physics)

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Responsible Author, Assistant Professor, Islamic Philosophy and Theology, Allame Tabatabaee University.

2 Full professor, Institute of Physics, Sharif university of Technology


Condensation (contraction) and rarefaction (expansion)
are two terms in natural philosophy (physics) used in
several different meanings. In this article the meanings of
the two terms and their real and artificial kinds are
introduced and their differences with some terms such as
growth, tumor, and, also, their opposite ones are
expressed. We have also evaluated the philosophical and
experimental arguments offered by Islamic Peripatetic
philosophers for the real condensation and rarefaction
from the perspective of modern science. Finally we have
shown that although there are some criticisms against their
arguments, the Islamic Peripatetic philosophers have been
realistic in describing these terms, and the opponents’
words such as Suhrawardi’s are not correct.